Glossaire



A

Activity
Necessary actions that take place within the framework of a programme and/or project to obtain, through a combination of supplies and resources, the expected product within a given period time.

Alliance
Union or pact among persons, organizations, social groups or states who articulate actions towards a common end.


C

Cost
Use of the organization’s resources to bring about a benefit. Basic elements:

1. The sum of the efforts and resources invested to produce an output.
2. That which is sacrificed or foregone in the pursuit of the chosen thing or course of action.

The first concept deals with the technical factors of production and is called the investment cost (measured in money), and the second refers to the possible financial consequences and is known as the substitution cost or opportunity cost. Monetary costs: the monetary costs are also called real or incurred. A basic cost, or commodity (satisfactor) is equal to the sum of the expenditure necessary to produce it.


D

Decent Work
Decent work means productive work in which rights are protected, which generates an adequate income, with adequate social protection. It also means sufficient work, in the sense that all should have full access to income-earning opportunities. It marks the high road to economic and social development, a road in which employment, income and social protection can be achieved without compromising workers rights and social standards (ILC87 - Report of the Director-General: Decent Work, International Labour Conference, 87th Session, Geneva, June, 1999)

Direct cost: that may be identified specifically in a project or specific working unit. Indirect cost: cannot be identified clearly in the project or unit and, therefore, cannot be measured (for example, management cost of a project, general administrative costs when part of a programme). Financial cost: Made up of the expenses incurred in obtaining funds/funding, and therefore represents the expenditure, in national or foreign currency, to cover interests. Per capita costs: in the field of social interventions, refers to the total cost divided by the number of beneficiaries. Total cost: ensemble of direct, indirect and opportunity costs necessary to produce a good or service. As regards this initiative refers to the direct costs.


E

Effectiveness
Expresses the relationship between the result obtained and the result expected.

Efficiency
Capacity to achieve a goal using the best means possible. It is the relationship between results obtained (profits, objectives met, products, etc.) and the resources used (man hours, capital invested, raw materials, etc.).

Evaluation
A disciplined and methodical type of investigation that gathers quantitative or qualitative information to determine the value of a programme, project, service or policy with a view to improving it, making it accountable and/or illuminating future activities or actions (WHO, 1995).


F

Focus on gender, or gender approach
Part of the equity focus, but it is specified because inequalities due to gender often complicate the full development of young people. It recognises the need to establish differentiated actions to promote the participation and inclusion of adolescents and youths, paying attention to the particularities in the construction of masculine and feminine roles and visions. It establishes the interaction, equity and solidarity among young men and women as a fundamental premise, and emphasises the heterogeneous character of the population in a gender-sensitive and inclusive way.

It looks to ensure egalitarian conditions for the participation of men and women in the identification of problems, analysis of causes, identification of and access to resources, and in the determination of solutions to the problems. It implies the creation of conditions in which women and men may contribute and grow. In the field of programmes, the gender focus looks to ensure that plans are formulated and executed in such a way that the particular needs of each gender are not overlooked.

Focus on rights, or rights approach
The rights focus is a great contribution to an integral vision of the processes of development during childhood and youth. The rights focus recognises adolescents and youths as right-holders, unconditionally, allowing for a conception that is integral, non-discriminatory and socially equal. These rights are inherent to human beings and are expressed as civil, political, social, economic and cultural rights established in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which emphasises the duty to ensure that men and women enjoy equally all rights.

The above was concretized in the International Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989). Furthermore, In 2008 the Ibero-American Convention on the Rights of Youths, which covers people aged 15 to 24, was ratified.

Follow-up
Continuous and periodic examination carried out by the administration, at all its levels, of the execution of an activity to ensure that the delivery of expected supplies; work-plans; prescribed outputs; and other necessary actions, take place according to plan. (Quintero, 1995). Like monitoring, it is a constant process that contributes to the timely collection of information to evaluate the progress of initiatives, solve difficulties and correct deficiencies.


G

Gender
Gender is an analytical category that allows to understand how the feminine and the masculine are constructed, and how these constructions are valued, organized and related in any given society. It is not a homogenous, static and uniform category, rather, a variable and mutable social relationship (Camacho, et all, 1998).


I

Impact
Change which is brought about in the target population as a result of a programme or project’s output (Quintero, 1995).

Investigation
A type of disciplined inquiry that takes place to solve a problem in such a way that understanding is achieved or action is facilitated.


M

Methodology
In this field, refers to the coherent application of a method or an organized set of steps and operations, in order to elaborate and distribute products or services, attain results and achieve the impact of the intervention.

Monitoring
The continual procedures –periodic vigilance- which take place from the start of a project or programme to ensure that activities are being conducted according to the plan elaborated. Monitoring is a process to assess the services being provided by a programme or project, measure how many are being provided, who is providing them and who is receiving them; also allows to correct programming of actions if deficiencies are detected (WHO, 1995).


O

Objective
Clear and precise enunciation of the purposes, ends and achievements to be attained (Quintero, 1995).

Organization
It is the structure and association through which a cooperative group of human beings assigns roles, responsibilities and tasks amongst members, identifies their relationships and integrates their activities towards a common set of objectives. Involves the coordination of the activities of all the individuals who integrate the group with the purpose of taking the greatest advantage of the material, technical and human elements, in the pursuit of the objectives set our by the group.


P

Policy
Policies express the guiding principles of a set of synergic and strategic actions articulated amongst each other. A set of general criteria which is established in a referential framework for the performance of the activities. This criteria is linked to the definition of objectives, goals or mission of an organization.

Programme
Organized set of projects and services and their corresponding interventions and activities, oriented towards attaining the programmatic objectives. Strategy of action, the guiding principles of which determine the means, managed and articulated, which provide integral solutions to problems. A programme constitutes its strategy through objectives and goals, a set of viable projects, interventions and an investment plan. (Quintero, 1995).


R

Result
Change effected; expressed through the direct achievements of the project immediately after the conclusion of all the planned activities. (Quintero, 1995).


S

Strengths (SWOT)
The capabilities, abilities, favourable conditions, alliances; the material, social and financial resources the organisation disposes of, and which allow it to achieve positive results, overcome difficulties and develop activities positively. See “SWOT Analysis”.

Systemization
Methodical arrangement, and consistent with the processes that characterize a project or a relevant work experience.


T

Target population
Adolescents and youths who make up the group targeted by a project, programme or plan.


W

Weaknesses (SWOT)
The elements/characteristics specific to an organization that cause an unfavourable comparative position: resources which are lacked, skills not possessed, activities which are not undertaken positively, etc. See “SWOT Analysis”.


Y

Youth
Stage of the life cycle that, while considered a bio-statistical category, has cultural and historical-political referents, and is recognised principally by its social characteristics.

The United Nations defines youths as persons between the ages of 15 and 24. However, young people are a heterogeneous group in constant evolution and the experience of ‘being young’ varies across regions and within countries, as well as over time. A number of UN agencies and government and non-government bodies often work with young people aged 18 to 30. For the purpose of this project, the young people referred to in the policy, programme or project will be considered as such according to any relevant national legislation or international definition.

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